What is PPFD and PBFD and How Are They Measured?

Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density (PPFD) is the metric used to measure PAR over a square meter. It is a total count of light energy (in photons) from 400nm to 700nm that reaches a particular point on a plane.  Photobiological Photon Flux Density (PBFD) is the metric used to measure PBAR over a square meter. It…

LED vs. HID Technology

There are many differences in LED and HID technology for plant growth. Arguably, the largest difference facing growers is up-front cost because LED systems are much more expensive to purchase than HID systems. On the contrary, maintenance of an LED system is minimal as you do not need to regularly change out lamps to maintain…

What Are IP Ratings?

IP stands for Ingress Protection and is a global ratings system. It is used to describe how well a product is protected against intrusion of substances like water and dust. The first number following IP refers to the ingress of solid foreign objects. The second number refers to the ingress of liquids. Common IP ratings…

Lighting Organizations

Who is ASABE? American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers – an educational and scientific organization dedicated to the advancement of engineering applicable to agricultural, food, and biological systems. ASABE is an international professional society devoted to agricultural and biological engineering. Who is NEMA? National Electrical Manufacturers Association – the largest trade organization of electrical…

Lighting Regulations Growers Should Know

You have probably seen some of the marks below on products such as appliances or computer equipment. While these entities have been around for many years, the parameters for certifications on horticulture lighting are still in their infancy. It will be important to pay attention to these certifications as they continue to develop, specifically when…

Setting Up a Grow Room

Things to Consider When Setting Up a Grow Room: Growth Stage – Do you plan to veg and flower in the same space? Make sure you are able to replace your lights without damaging your plants when it is time to switch. You’ll also want to consider hanging heights for your plants for the different…

How Do Plants See Light?

Plants can sense light by way of photons using the plant’s photoreceptors; the organisms or proteins of the plant that perceive light. The photoreceptors signal various biological changes from each wavelength of light affecting things like structure, growth, biomass, color, taste, aroma and so forth. The photoperiod is the amount of time a plant is…

Light Meters and What They Are Used For

Light meters are devices used to measure the intensity from a light source given the distance in which the meter is held from that source. They capture the photons emitted from the light at a particular point on a plane. For example, if you were to hold a light meter 4 feet from your light, you…

What is a Photon?

A photon is a particle of electromagnetic radiation. Simply put, it is a single unit of light.  Photons are used to convert light into useful energy, hence Photosynthesis. They are measured in micromoles describing the amount of light coming from a light source. Plants can sense photons using their photoreceptors; the organisms or proteins of…